The culture concept’s first clear definition was developed by British anthropologist Sir Edward Burnett Tylor – examples of species of animals that lead a social existence without culture: are ants, and bees, therefore, society can exist without culture, but culture cannot exist without society
No member of a society has an exact version of his/her culture as another – gender: the meanings cultures assign to the biological differences of the sexes -therefore, one’s sexual identity or gender is culturally constructed – gender differences are as old as a human culture- about 2.5 mills. yrs. -“ “ arose from biological differences – relationships between food foragers are open although both sexes usually do not carry out same tasks – subculture: a distinctive set of standards & behavior patterns that a group within a larger society operates by
Example of subculture: Amish (who rely on a horse for transportation as well as agriculture & have their own set of ideas dissimilar as well as similar to the society) – old-order Amish originated in Austria and Moravia during Reformation- now mainly populate Ohio, Indiana & Pennsylvania – pluralistic societies: societies that have a diversity of cultural patterns.