Foals: The First Year
Foals: The First Year RUSTY MILLER STATEMENT DESCRIBING CAREER GOALS AND RESEARCH INTERESTS MASTERS IN ANIMAL SCIENCE AUGUST 1, 2000 RESEARCH INTERESTS AND BACKGROUND INFORMATION Introduction: The following is a report on my research information on foal’s nutritional need through there the first year of life.
This report will also show a research project that I would like to do for my Masters’s degree. Nutrition A. Nutritional Requirement 1. Details of general nutrition 2. Requirements B. Other items required for good nutrition 1. Water 2. Energy, Maintenance, & Growth II. Creep Feeding A. Reason for creep feeding foals 1. Why creep feed 2. When to creep feed B.
The nutritional advantage for creep feeding 1. The foal’s nutrition needs 2. Foal feeding guidelines 3. The end results in III. Research and personal information A. Research project using a group of newborn foals 1. Setting up the research project 2. Details of what I’m hoping to prove B. Personal information 1. Background information 2. Detail of work history and professional background Conclusion: Rusty Miller Research project for Masters in Animal Science August 1, 2000 FOALS: THE FIRST YEAR.
Feeding should be based on both practical experience and scientific research. Horses are kept for a much longer time than most farm animals and feeding programs must support the development of sound feet and legs to sustain long and athletic life. Nutritional Requirement Although horses obviously utilize hay and other roughage more efficiently than of other non-ruminants such as poultry or pigs. The anatomy of the equine G I tract limits this ability as compared with ruminants.
The site of fermentation in horses is the cecum and large intestine, where a large number of microorganisms digest hemicelluloses and cellulose utilize protein and non-protein nitrogen and synthesize certain vitamins. Some of the products of fermentation such as volatile fatty acids and the use of microbial protein synthesized from nitrogen entering the cecum and calm under foes only limited proteolysis and the supply of essential amino acids from an unbalanced dietary nitrogen source are not satisfactorily balanced by microbial ammo acids for optimal growth.
Horses, therefore, depend more on the quality of their diet than ruminants. Water requirements depend largely on the environment amount of work being performed nature of the food and the physiological state of the horse. Daily consumption by an adult horse typically is 5 to 12 gals. Clean, fresh water should be provided ad-lib for all horses. As physical activity increases water consumption increases.
If a horse is hot following exercise, it should be allowed to cool before being given unlimited access to water. Energy requirements may be classified into these needed for maintenance, growth, pregnancy, lactation, and work. The need for energy differs considerably among individuals some horses and “easy keepers”, while others require prodigious amounts of feed.
Thus, these formulas provide only a sound basis for estimating energy needs not the energy needs of any individual horse. Maintenance To maintain body weight and support normal activity, the daily digestible energy requirement of the non-working horse weighing 440 – 1322 lb is 1.4 + (0.03 x body wt. in kg) for horses weighing *600kg, and daily requirements are 1.82 + (0.0383 x body wt) Growth.
The DE requirements for growth (to be added to that for maintenance) are estimated from the following equation in which x equals age in months and Average Daily Growth equals average daily fain in kg. DE growth (meal/ day = (4.81 + 1.17 x 0.023 x Average Daily Growth Pregnancy Maintenance energy intakes are adequate until the last 90 days of gestation when most of the fetal tissue growth occurs. During gestation months 9 to 11, D E requirements are estimated by multiplying maintenance requirements by 1-11, 1-13, and 1-20, respectively.
Voluntary intake of roughage decreases as the fetus gets larger and it may be necessary to increase the energy density of the diet by using some concentrate. Lactation It has been estimated that 792 Keal of DE/Kg of milk produced per day should be added to maintenance needs to support lactation. Maintenance needs to support lactation. This level of energy intake has produced increased body weight gain in lactating mares, indicating that it may exceed the minimum requirement for lactation. Some data on the average milk production of mares are listed below.
The condition of the mare determines the desirability of increasing gain. Average Milk Production Months after Foaling Mares Production 0 – 1 13.9 1 – 2 14.7 2 – 3 16.9 3 – 4 15.1 4 – 5 10.9 Protein and Amino Acids Although some amino acid synthesis occurs in the cecum and large intestine, it is not sufficient to meet the amino acid needs of growing, working horses and foals: therefore the protein quality of the feed is important. Weanlings require 2.1g of and yearlings 1.9g of lysine meal DE per day.
Growing horses have a considerably greater need for protein than mature horses. Also, the protein requirements of growing babies of the heavier breeds are higher at the same body weight than those of the lighter breeds. Fetal growth during the last fourth of pregnancy increases protein requirements somewhat, while lactation increases requirements still further. Work apparently does not increase the protein requirement, provided that the ratio of crude protein to digestible energy in the diet remains constant and the increased energy requirements are met.
However, if the energy requirement is not met, body fat and then the muscle is metabolized which results in a net nitrogen loss. Minerals Because the skeleton is of such fundamental importance to the performance of the horse mineral requirements deserve careful attention. Excessive intakes of certain minerals may be as harmful as deficiencies: therefore, the mineral supplement should be based on the composition of the basic feed in the diet.
Calcium and phosphorus: The need during growth is much greater than for maintenance of the mature animal. Sodium: The salt requirement is markedly influenced by perspiration loss. 50 to 60 grams of salt may be lost daily in the sweat and 35 grams in the urine of a horse at moderate work.
Magnesium: The daily magnesium requirement for maintenance has been estimated at 6.8-mg/lb-body weight. For the growing foal, Magnesium at0.57 g/lb body wt. gain must be added to the maintenance requirement. Potassium: Foals require up to 1% potassium in a purified diet while mature horses require 0.4% potassium in a natural diet (27 mg/lb body weight). Most roughages contain * 1.5% potassium. A diet containing * 35% roughage provides sufficient potassium. Iron: The dietary maintenance requirement for iron is estimated to be 40 ppm.
For rapidly growing foals and pregnant and lactating mares, the requirement is estimated to be 50ppm CREEP FEEDING Why Creep Feed This can be best explained by looking at the relationship between the nutrient requirements of the suckling foal and the nutrients provided to the via the mare’s milk. During the first few weeks after parturition, the mare provides adequate energy for the foal.
During this time, one can observe the foal nursing, playing, and sleeping on some schedule, perhaps 45 to 60 minutes per cycle. By 2.0 to 2.5 months of age, a sizable difference between the foal’s energy needs and the mare’s production is evident. This is verified by the foal’s interest in consuming other feedstuffs, including the mare’s grain ration, pasture, and/or hay. Similar relationships exist for the other nutrients as well.
Therefore, the foal restricted to only its mother’s milk would be deficient in not only energy but also protein. When to Creep Feed Although most foals will start to explore edible materials, and some that are not edible, in their environment within a few days after birth, significant feed intake does not occur for most foals until they are in their second month.
At this time, a feeding system that allows the foal to consume its feed and prevents the mare from eating the creep feed is desirable. This is typically a creep feed that is desirable. The is typically a creep feeder located in the pasture. Nutritional Advantage for Creep Feeding The Foal’s Nutrition Needs The creep feed should be formulated to provide a high-quality source of nutrients. Under most circumstances, the foal should be fed the same concentration that will be used as a weanling feed.
This will avoid a ratio change at weaning. A 16% to 18% protein concentrate with at least 0.80% lysine, 1.0% calcium, 0.75 phosphorus, and appropriate concentrations of other minerals and partially supplied by milk when it is nursing and its requirements, as a percentage of the total diet, decrease as the growth rate slows following weaning.
Foal Feeding Guidelines As the foal’s dietary requirements shift from milk to feed and forage, your role in providing the proper nutrition gains in importance. Here are some guidelines to help meet the young horse’s needs: 1 . Provide high-quality roughage (hay or pasture) free choice. 2 . Supplement with grain or concentrates beginning at about 4 Weeks of age. 3 . Start by feeding 1% of a foal’s body weight per day.
( 1 Pound of feed for every 100 pounds of body weight) 4 . Weigh and adjust the feed ratio based on growth and Fitness. A weight tape can help approximate a foal’s size 5. Foals have small stomachs so divide the daily ration into 2 to 3 feedings. 6 . Make sure feeds contain the proper balance of vitamins, minerals, energy, and protein 7. Use a creep feeder or feed the foal separately from the mare so it can eat its own ration 8. Remove uneaten portions between feedings 9 . Do not overfeed. Overweight foals are more prone to developmental orthopedic disease (DOD) 10. Provide unlimited fresh, clean water The End Results Creep feeding is good management. Don’t restrict a foal to an inadequate diet while it is most capable of using those nutrients to build a sound body.
Creep feeding bridges the gap between the nutrient composition of mare’s milk and foal nutrient needs Research and Personal Information Setting up the research project The project I would like to do is to take a group of foals and divide them into 3 groups. Group A would be taken forms their mothers between 3 and 4 months. The foals would be put into the barn and fed on a program giving them everything they need as far as a feed source. These foals also are put on a conditioning program of free and forced work. These foals would receive all health care needed, which includes shots and a worming program.
These foals will be treated as if they are being prepared for the show ring. Group B would be left with their mothers until 5 to 6 months. These Foals would be started on a creep feed program as soon as they are noticed to start to nibble on other food sources. They would only have free exercise in the field with their mothers. They would receive all the vet work including shots and a worming program.
Group C would also be left with their mothers until 5 to 6 months. These foals would not get any extra feed as in being creep feed. They will get only what they get from their mother feeding their mother milk and grass. These foals would be put on a vet program including shots and a worming program. The foals will be treated like most of the “backyard” foals are treated. All foals will be weighed and measured to have a record on a starting point and reweighed and measured every 2 weeks.
All foals selected for this study will be checked by a vet to be should all foals are sound and healthy to have an equal playing field. At the end of the 6-month when all foals are off their mothers they all will be weighed and measured for the last time. The top foal from each group will then be pulled into the barn and put on the same program as the foals from group A. Weighting and measuring will continue on these 3 foals.
The 3 foals will be taken to a show in Nov or Dec. End Results This project is to study which group of foals has the best growth, and which group of foals turned out the best at 6 mouths. We will also take a look at the 3 remaining foals at a year old to see if the best foal had any kind of advantage to what program he was in. This study will show if the entire extra work and feed sources made a difference in which foal is the best.